Cum se diferentiaza gelozia de invidie

Posted: iulie 20, 2010 in relatii

When intensity level was controlled, several substantial differences between jealousy and envy emerged. Jealousy was
distinguished from envy by higher scores in four areas: (a) distrust, including feeling betrayed, rejected, and suspicious;
(b) fear, including feeling worried, anxious, and threatened; (c) uncertainly, including feeling confused about the state of
the relationship; and (d) loneliness, including feeling left out and abandoned. Four reactions also differentiated envy from
jealousy. Specifically, envious individuals experienced more: (a) disapproval of their own feelings; (b) longing for what
another person possesses; (c) motivation to improve oneself; and (d) degradation, which included feeling humiliated and
inferior. Insecurity appears to be related to both jealousy and envy. However, the insecurity stemming from jealousy is
more strongly focused on uncertainty about the status of one’s relationship or position, whereas insecurity associated with
envy centers more squarely on one’s perceived inferiority to others.

Ciabattari (1988) proposed the interesting hypothesis that jealousy and envy originate in love and hate, respectively. According to this view, jealousy (though it may ultimately lead to hate) can only exist when a person loves someone and wants to protect the relationship. In contrast, envy stems from resenting or hating someone for having something you do not possess. If this is true, then the functions that jealousy and envy serve are very different. On the positive side, jealous individuals should strive to protect and maintain their relationships, whereas envious individuals should strive to improve themselves so they are competitive with the rival. On the negative side, jealous individuals may become overly possessive and demanding, whereas envious individuals may strike out against those people who make
them feel inferior.

In a test of the self-evaluation maintenance view, Salovey and Rodin (1984) tested and found support for the contention
that envy is strongest under three eliciting conditions.
1. There must be a negative self-to-other comparison.
2. This comparison must be in an area that is highly self-relevant to the potentially envious person.
3. The envious person and the rival should be similar in abilities and/or share a close relationship.

When these conditions are present, envy is likely to be experienced and the envious person should engage in coping
behaviors to help alleviate negative affect. Salovey and Rodin (1988, 1989) forwarded three such coping strategies: (a)
self-reliance, which includes avoiding outward emotional expression, keeping busy, and refusing to ask others for help;
(b) self-bolstering, which includes concentrating on one’s positive qualities and doing nice things for oneself; and (c)
selective ignoring, which includes re-evaluating the importance of a goal so that it is no longer highly self-relevant.
Communicative behaviors associated with these coping strategies might include the following: avoiding communication
with the rival, spending time with people who are positively reinforcing, engaging in activities in which one has
exceptional ability, and talking about one’s achievements with others.

Spitzberg, Dark side of close relationships, 1989


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